Peer-Reviewed Publications

(MSML members in bold)


30. Xue Y, Ravishankar P, Zeballos MA, Sant V, Balachandran K, Sant S. Valve leaflet‐inspired elastomeric scaffolds with tunable and anisotropic mechanical properties. Polymers for Advanced Technologies. 2020; 31(1) 94-106.  [link]


29. Walker A, Kim J, Wyatt J, Terlouw A, Balachandran K, Wolchok J. Repeated In Vitro Impact Conditioning of Astrocytes Decreases the Expression and Accumulation of Extracellular Matrix. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 2019; 47(4) 967-979.  [link]

28. Ravishankar P, Khang A, Laredo M, Balachandran K. Using dimensionless numbers to predict centrifugal jet-spun nanofiber morphology. Journal of Nanomaterials. 2019.  [link]


27. Rosas-Hernandez H, Cuevas E, Escuero-Lourdes C, Lantz SM, Sturdivant NM, Imam SZ, Sarkar S, Slikker Jr. W, Paule MG, Balachandran K, Ali SF. Characterization of uniaxial high-speed stretch as an in vitro model of mild traumatic brain injury on the blood-brain barrier. Neuroscience Letters. 2018 (672) 123-129.  [link]

26. Rosas-Hernandez H, Cuevas E, Escuero-Lourdes C, Lantz SM, Gomez-Crisostomo P, Sturdivant NM, Balachandran K, Imam SZ, Slikker Jr. W, Paule MG, Ali SF. Characterization of biaxial stretch as an in vitro model of traumatic brain injury to the blood-brain barrier. Molecular Neurobiology. 2018. 2018;55(1),258-266. doi:10.1007/s12035-017-0738-5. [link]

25. Perez J, Diaz N, Tandon I, Plate R, Martindale C, Balachandran K. Elevated Serotonin Interacts with Angiotensin-II to Result in Altered Valve Interstitial Cell Contractility and Remodeling. Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology. 2018;9(2):168-180. doi:10.1007/s13239-017-0298-x. [link]


24. Ravishankar P, Zeballos MA, Balachandran KIsolation of Endothelial Progenitor Cells from Human Umbilical Cord Blood. Journal of Visualized Experiments. 2017 Sep 14;(127). doi: 10.3791/56021. [link]

23. Lam N, Lam H, Sturdivant NM, Balachandran K. Fabrication of a matrigel-collagen semi-interpenetrating scaffold for use in dynamic valve interstitial cell culture. Biomedical Materials. 2017. [link]

22. Grande-Allen KJ, Puperi D, Ravishankar P, Balachandran K. Aortic Valve Mechanobiology – from Organs to Cells in Mechanobiology: Exploitation for Medical Benefit.  Wiley 2017. [link]


  1. Khang A, Ravishankar P, Krishnaswamy A, Anderson PK, Cone SG, Liu Z, Qian X, Balachandran K. Engineering Anisotropic Biphasic Janus-type Polymer Nanofiber Scaffold Networks via Centrifugal Jet Spinning. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B. 2016 Sep 21. [link]
  1. Sturdivant NM, Smith SG, Ali SF, Wolchok JC, Balachandran K. Acetazolamide Mitigates Astrocyte Cellular Edema Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Scientific Reports. 2016 Sep 14;6:33330. [link]
  1. Tandon I, Razavi A, Ravishankar P, Walker A, Sturdivant NM, Lam NT, Wolchok JC, Balachandran K. Valve interstitial cell shape modulates cell contractility independent of cell phenotype. Journal of Biomechanics. 2016 Oct 3;49(14):3289-3297. [link]
  1. Lam NT, Muldoon TJ, Rajaram N, Balachandran K. Valve interstitial cell contractile strength and metabolic state are dependent on its shape. Integrative Biology. 2016 Oct 10;8(10):1079-1089. [link]


  1. Lam NT, Balachandran K. The mechanobiology of drug-induced cardiac valve disease. Journal of Long Term Effects of Medical Implants. 2015;25(1-2):27-40. [link]


  1. Greening GJ, Istfan R, Higgins LM, Balachandran K, Roblyer D, Pierce MC, Muldoon TJ. Characterization of Thin Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Tissue-Stimulating Phantoms with Tunable Reduced Scattering and Absorption Coefficients at Visible and Near-Infrared Wavelengths. Journal of Biomedical Optics. 2014 Nov 1; 19(11):115002. [link]
  1. Badrossamay MR*, Balachandran K*, Capulli AK, Golecki HM, Agarwal A, Goss JA, Kim H, Shin K, Parker KK. Engineering Hybrid Polymer-Protein Super-Aligned Nanofibers via Rotary Jet Spinning. Biomaterials. 204 Mar;35(10):3188-97. (* Equal contribution) [link]

Before 2013

  1. Balachandran K, Hussain S, Yap CH, Padala M, Chester AH, Yoganathan AP. Elevated Cyclic Stretch and Serotonin Result in Aortic Valve Remodeling via a 5-HT2A Receptor-Dependent Pathway. Cardiovascular Pathology. 2012 May-Jun;21(3):206-13. Epub 2011 Aug 23. [link]
  1. Balachandran K, Alford PW, Wylie-Sears J, Goss JA, Grosberg A, Aikawa E, Bischoff J, Levine RA, Parker KK. Cyclic Strain Induces Dual-Mode Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transformation of the Cardiac Valve. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2011 Dec 13;108(50):19943-8. Epub 2011 Nov 28. [link]
  1. Balachandran K, Sucosky P, Yoganathan AP. Hemodynamics and Mechanobiology of Aortic Valve Inflammation and Calcification. International Journal of Inflammation (Review paper). 2011; 2011:263870. Epub 2011 Jul 6. [link]
  1. Balachandran K*, Bakay M*, Connolly JM, Zhang, X, Yoganathan AP, Levy RJ. Aortic Valve Cyclic Stretch Causes Increased Remodeling Activity and Enhanced Serotonin Receptor Responsiveness. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2011 Jul;92(1):147-53. (* Equal contribution) [link]
  1. Weiler MJ, Yap CH, Balachandran K, Padala M, Yoganathan AP. Regional Analysis of Dynamic Deformation Characteristics of Aortic Valve Leaflets. Journal of Biomechanics. 2011 May 17;44(8):1459-65. [link]
  1. Thayer P, Balachandran K, Giles BR, Sucosky P, Jo H, Yoganathan AP. The effects of combined cyclic stretch and pressure on the aortic valve interstitial cell phenotype. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 2011 Jun;39(6):1654-67. [link]
  1. Padala M, Sacks MS, Liou SW, Balachandran K, He Z, Yoganathan AP. Mechanics of the mitral valve strut chordae insertion region. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 2010 Aug;132(8):081004. [link]
  1. Balachandran K, Sucosky P, Jo H, Yoganathan AP. Elevated Cyclic Stretch Induces Aortic Valve Calcification in a Bone Morphogenic Protein Dependent Manner. American Journal of Pathology. 2010 Jul;177(1):49-57. [link]
  1. Yap CH, Kim HS, Balachandran K, Weiler MJ, Haj-Ali R, Yoganathan AP. Dynamic Deformation Characteristics of Porcine Aortic Valve Leaflet Under Normal and Hypertensive Conditions. American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2010 Feb;298(2):H395-405. [link]
  1. El-Hamamsy I*, Balachandran K*, Yacoub MH, Sarathchandra P, Stevens LM, Taylor PM, Yoganathan AP, Chester AH. Endothelium-dependent regulation of mechanical properties of aortic valve cusps. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009 Apr 21; 53(16):1448-55. (* Equal contribution) [link]
  1. Balachandran K, Sucosky P, Jo H, Yoganathan AP. Elevated cyclic stretch alters matrix remodeling in aortic valve cusps – implications for degenerative aortic valve disease. American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2009 Mar; 296(3):H756-64. [link]
  1. Sucosky P, Balachandran K, Elhammali A, Jo H, Yoganathan AP. Altered shear stress stimulates upregulation of endothelial VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in a BMP-4- and TGF-β1-dependent pathway. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 2009 Feb; 29(2):254-60. [link]
  1. Sucosky P, Padala M, Elhammali A, Balachandran K, Jo H, Yoganathan AP. Design of an ex vivo culture system to investigate the effects of shear stress on cardiovascular tissue. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 2008 Jun;130 (3). [link]
  1. Balachandran K, Konduri S, Sucosky P, Jo H, Yoganathan AP. An ex vivo study of the biological properties of porcine aortic valves in response to circumferential cyclic stretch. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 2006 Nov; 34(11):1655-65. [link]